Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Innate Knowledge Locke Essay

The idea that people are brought into the world with an intrinsic thoughts has been a much discussed theme for a long time. It is difficult to state in the event that it is valid or not, however it is accepted valid by numerous individuals, including a few religions. John Locke has a few contentions against intrinsic information; among these, the contention that expresses that on the off chance that we did in actuality have inborn thoughts, at that point everyone would concede to in any event one thought. There are no rules that everyone aggress on. Thusly, intrinsic thoughts can't in any way, shape or form exist. Locke utilizes the rationale of this contention for a few unique circumstances, for example, the contention for moral intrinsic information. Locke begins this contention by saying â€Å"No moral standards so clear thus commonly got as the front referenced theoretical proverbs. In the event that those theoretical adages whereof we talked in the prior part, have not a really all inclusive consent from all humankind, as we there demonstrated it is substantially more noticeable concerning down to earth standards, that they miss the mark regarding an all inclusive gathering; and I figure it will be difficult to occasion any one good guideline which can profess to so broad and prepared a consent as, ‘What is, is’, or to be so show a fact as this, ‘That it is inconceivable for something very similar to be and not to be. ’† (pg 26 An Essay Concerning Human Understanding) Some individuals accept that each individual has a lot of ethics offered in them during childbirth, yet Locke contends this by saying that few out of every odd individual on the planet concedes to a lot of ethics so there is no conceivable way this could be valid. He says that there is definitely not a solitary good thought that we can say that everyone on the planet consents to, which takes out any inquiry of natural information. Descartes would differ with Locke regarding the matter of inborn thoughts. He felt that we possessed these sorts of thoughts and would most likely answer to Locke’s contention by saying that albeit all individuals may not concur on one good thought, that doesn’t imply that they don't have any inborn thought, they may have various ones. Descartes may likewise react by saying that it’s God’s will for us to have these thoughts and just he knows why everyone doesn't concur on a solitary one. This contention wouldn’t hold up well against Locke’s on the grounds that it appears that ethical thoughts are created relying upon the religion or part of the world that an individual is brought up in. It appears to be significantly more conceivable that, with people at any rate, a newborn child is a clear record and is instructed everything that it should endure. It may be simpler for Descartes to contend against creature natural information since creatures appear to have it substantially more than people do. A few creatures are not raised by a parent, basically conceived and left to battle for themselves, yet since Descartes additionally feels creatures need insight, I would envision he would not start to contend to plausibility of them having any kind of inborn information. On this specific subject, I would side more with Locke than Descartes. Locke tends to some major issues that emerge while proposing that natural thoughts exist. He says that on the off chance that we did in certainty have intrinsic thoughts, at that point everyone would concede to in any event one thought. There are no rules that everyone aggress on. In this way, intrinsic thoughts can't in any way, shape or form exist. This is by all accounts a truly clear articulation on the planet today and since the get-go. Individuals have consistently differ on anything they could and will consistently oppose this idea. It is totally difficult to demonstrate or invalidate the presence of natural thoughts, however Locke comes a lot nearer to discrediting them than any other individual does to demonstrating them. It appears that all together for an individual to demonstrate the presence of these thoughts, they would likewise need to demonstrate the presence of a preeminent being. The contention for inborn information in creatures would be significantly more conceivable than the contention for intrinsic information in people. At the point when a newborn child is conceived, it is totally vulnerable; it doesn't have the ability to walk or comprehend they things around it and it can’t even observe in excess of 12 creeps before its face. I think that its difficult to accept that anything this powerless could conceivable have any thoughts regarding ethics or whatever else on the planet. Creatures have a feeling of endurance that people need. From the second they are conceived, a greater part of them figure out how to stroll in no time or hours, and some are even left by their folks to fight for themselves. This shows the chance of natural information substantially more than a human kid and in the event that we are completely brought into the world with a concurrence on a set or good standards, for what reason do we have a law we need to uphold? On the off chance that we agreed regarding this matter, we would not need to indict anyone for breaking any ethical code that our general public sets for us to follow.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Business and Management for Engineers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Business and Management for Engineers - Essay Example Its administration stays in charge during the time of Chapter 11 however interestingly, it gives the organization â€Å"automatic stay† and â€Å"breathing room† to take care of its business by not permitting gatherings to make lawful move or remove its benefits ( General Motors was initially established on September 16, 1908 as a holding organization for Buick by two accomplices, William C. Durant and Charles S. Mott. After two years or around 1910, Durant lost control of General Motors as a result of a default in its bank credit commitments. Be that as it may, he had the option to recover control through an intermediary war he pursued by utilizing the Chevrolet Motor Car Company to obtain shares furtively yet then he lost control again when the vehicle showcase fallen during the Great Depression. General Motors Corporation was a piece of the alleged three commanders in American business †the other two being General Electric and General Mills. Long periods of botch and a bureaucratic corporate culture prompted its breakdown in the last budgetary emergency and is currently claimed by the US government through its Treasury Department under the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP); it was surpassed by Toyota a year ago. After its rebuilding under Chapter 11 standards, it is currently a constrained risk organization. It implies being a LLC, it gives restricted obligation to its proprietors which are the US government and to a lesser degree, likewise the Canadian government. Other present proprietors incorporate the United Auto Workers Union Employee Association and different bondholders of Motors Liquidation Corporation (the new name of General Motors while it is experiencing recovery at present) while the past investors of the organization are currently holding useless bits of paper as organization liabilities are a lot more noteworthy than its all out resources (a negative total assets of $86 billion). Prior to the rebuilding, it was a

Friday, August 21, 2020

The Recovery Model in Mental Health Care

The Recovery Model in Mental Health Care Psychotherapy Print The Recovery Model By Sarah Lyon, OTR/L twitter linkedin Sarah Lyon, OTR/L, is a board-certified occupational therapist and founder of OT Potential. Learn about our editorial policy Sarah Lyon, OTR/L Medically reviewed by Updated on February 20, 2020 Tom Merton/Getty Images More in Psychotherapy Online Therapy The recovery model is a holistic, person-centered approach to mental health care. The model has quickly gained momentum over the past decade and is becoming the standard model of mental health care.?? This model is based on two simple premises: It is possible to recover from a mental health conditionThe most effective recovery is patient-directed If you’re receiving mental health services or have a loved one with a mental health condition, knowing the basic tenants of this model can help you advocate for the best care. The framework can give you language to use that will resonate with caregivers when describing gaps in your service.  Your input may be invaluable in helping mental health care providers shift toward the values outlined by this model. Recovery Is Possible As the name of the model implies, the hallmark principle is the belief that people can recover from mental illness to lead full, satisfying lives.  Until the mid-seventies, many practitioners believed that patients with mental health conditions were doomed to live with their illness and would not be able to contribute to society, particularly, those individuals with schizophrenia, schizo-affective disorder, and bipolar disorder. However, several long-term studies, from several countries came out in the mid-seventies showing this to be false.?? Change Has Been Grassroots Often sound evidence is not enough to change systems. It took two decades for this basic belief to gain traction in the medical community. The change came about largely through patients self-advocating for their involvement in treatment. As well as showing through lived experience that, given the proper supports, they could live active lives in the community. The history of the movement reflects another basic tenant of the recovery model; the most lasting change happens when the patient directs it. Characteristics of the Recovery Model The model takes a holistic view of a person’s life. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administrations (SAMHSA) working definition of recovery from mental disorders and/or substance use disorders states that recovery is a process of change through which individuals improve their health and wellness, live a self-directed life, and strive to reach their full potential.?? SAMHSA has outlined four dimensions to consider when supporting someone in recovery: Health: In order to manage or recovery from mental illness, people must make choices that support both their physical and mental well-being.Home: People need a safe and supportive home environment.Purpose: Having meaningful daily routines such as school, work, family, and community participation are important during the recovery process and for maintaining wellness.Community: Supportive social relationships provide people with the love, emotional availability, and respect that they need to survive and thrive. Principles of Treatment SAMHSA also defines ten guiding principles which recovery treatment is based on. Every institution that operates according to the recovery model should be striving to incorporate these into their care.According to these principles, recovery:Emerges from hope Is person-driven Occurs through many pathways Is Holistic Is supported by peers and allies Is supported through relationship and social networks Is culturally-based and influenced Is supported by addressing trauma Involves individual, family, and community strengths and responsibility Is based on respect In particular, the recovery model stresses the importance of connectedness and social supports. When people have supportive relationships that offer unconditional love, they are better able to cope with the symptoms of their illness and work toward recovery. Psychologists, psychiatrists, doctors, and other health professionals can provide such support to a certain degree, but other connections offered by friends, family, and other peers are also critical. Support groups and community organizations can help fulfill this need as well. The National Push for Recovery By 2003, the individuals who had been advocating for recovery-based care found their work paying off. A mental health commission, ordered by George W. Bush, gave the final report of its work and made recovery-based care a national priority. The vision set forth in this final report was ambitious, possible, and worth repeating. The report envisioned a future that focused on the prevention, early detection, and cure of mental illness.?? Over a decade later, the concept of the recovery model is familiar to most mental health practitioners. But individuals are still working out how to design programs and treatments based on these principles. Recovery Model vs. the Medical Model The recovery model of mental illness is often contrasted against what is known as the medical model. The medical model posits that mental disorders have physiological causes, so the focus on treatment is often on the use of medications. While the two models are often presented as being in opposition to one another, researchers have suggested that the two are complementary and can be used together during the treatment process. The medical model ensures that biological causes are fully addressed and that people receive the medication-based treatments that they need, while the recovery model ensures that patients are able to be directly involved in their own treatment. The medical model is rooted in utilizing treatments that are based on empirical research, but the recovery model offers the personal empowerment and peer support that people need to cope with their illness and work toward getting better. One of the major strengths of the recovery model is that it focuses on individual strengths and abilities rather than on deficits and pathologies. It places trust in the individual to know their own experience and to be able to take an active role in their treatment. A number of programs, including the Wellness Recovery Action Plan (WRAP) and the NAMI Family-to-Family program, incorporate both medical and recovery models and have research backing their effectiveness. Further Reading For an in-depth look at the recovery movement, the American Psychological Association has 15 learning modules that are accessible to the public. The topics range from a broad overview of the recovery model to ways it is being implemented in practice.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Synthesis of Co(Acac)3 - 1077 Words

Amanda Tran Date of lab: 04/25/05 Date submitted: 05/09/05 Chem 2130-3 Experiment 3: Synthesis of Co(acac-NO2)3 Introduction In this lab, Co(acac ·NO2)3 is synthesized using the Co(acac)3 complex produced in Experiment 2. The Co(acac)3 complex is used as a reagent instead of acacH because acacH cannot be directly converted to 3-nitroacetylacetone. Since Co(acac)3 is not stable in HNO3, Cu(NO3)2 and acetic anhydride are used in this reaction to produce the final product, Co(acac ·NO2)3. The exact mechanism of the reaction is unknown, however, it is believed to proceed as follows: 1) [pic] 2) [pic] Data and Calculations Table 1: Measurements of weights and melting point |†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¢ Theoretical Yield [pic] †¢ Percent Yield [pic] Results 1.3002 g finely ground copper nitrate trihydrate, 20 mL acetic anhydride, and 0.4998 g Co(acac)3 was mixed in a flask, producing a dark green, translucent solution. Transferring this solution to ice water and sodium acetate caused a black-green oil to form in the solution. Addition of ethanol solidified the oil to form a dark green powder/paste. 0.3510 grams of product with a melting point of 182-187 °C was synthesized in this experiment. 1) In order for all the nitrogen in Cu(NO3)2 ·3H2O to be incorporated into Co(acac)3, a stoichiometric ratio of 2/3 moles Co(acac)3 to 1 mole Cu(NO3)2 ·3H2O would be required. The actual mole ratio used in the experiment was 0.26 moles Co(acac)3 to 1 mole Cu(NO3)2 ·3H2O, thus, the amount of product was limited by Co(acac)3. This ratio was used because balancing the equations (see Data Calculations above) showed that 1 mole Cu(NO3)2 ·3H2O produced 2 moles C2H3O2NO2, and that 3 moles C2H3O2NO2 react with 1 mole Co(acac)3. Since there were only 2 moles of C2H3O2NO2 were available, all reactants and products in the second equation were multiplied by 2/3 to obtain 2 moles of C2H3O2NO2. Less than 2/3 moles Co(acac)3 was used in the experiment because not all the nitrogen in Cu(NO3)2 ·3H2O can react and be incorporated into Co(acac)3. 2) Co(acac)3 + 3 C2H3O2NO2 ( Co(acac-NO2)3 + 3 C2H3O2 Since only 2 moles of C2H3O2NO2Show MoreRelatedSynthesis of Co(Acac)31062 Words   |  5 Pagessubmitted: 05/09/05 Chem 2130-3 Experiment 3: Synthesis of Co(acac-NO2)3 Introduction In this lab, Co(acac ·NO2)3 is synthesized using the Co(acac)3 complex produced in Experiment 2. The Co(acac)3 complex is used as a reagent instead of acacH because acacH cannot be directly converted to 3-nitroacetylacetone. Since Co(acac)3 is not stable in HNO3, Cu(NO3)2 and acetic anhydride are used in this reaction to produce the final product, Co(acac ·NO2)3. The exact mechanism of theRead MorePreparation of Bis Acetylacetonao Copper 21382 Words   |  6 Pagesnumber of other molecules or ions surrounding it. These can be considered to be attached to the central ion by co-ordinate (dative covalent) bonds. The molecules or ions surrounding the central metal ion are called ligands. Simple ligands include water, ammonia, acetyl acetone and chloride ions. Ligand has active lone pairs of electrons in the outer energy level. These are used to form co-ordinate bonds with the metal ion. All ligands are lone pair donors. In other words, all ligands function as LewisRead MoreApplication Of Magnetic Polymer Nanocomposites1720 Words   |  7 Pagesdue to their superparamagnetic properties, high biocompatibility, and lack of toxicity to humans. For biomedical applications, some of their uses include both diagnostic and therapeutic in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) [1, 2], drug delivery agents [3, 4], and as heat mediators in hyperthermia cancer treatment [5, 6]. Unmodified iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles have high surface/volume ratio, which cause magnetic dipole-dipole attractions that result in the formation of aggregates. The aggregation

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Transgender and Psychological/social Gender Identity

Transsexualism [pic] People with gender identity disorder should change their sexual identity and live among us as the opposite sex as long as they acknowledge and reveal themselves as â€Å"transsexuals†. Now, let me define what is known as â€Å"gender identity disorder†; it is commonly referred to as â€Å"transsexualism† which is a condition where a transsexual person self-identifies as a member of the gender opposite to the one assigned to them at birth. Transsexualism is considered a taboo subject in many parts of theworld. Y, u might ask? Well, simply because it is perceived as being supported by religious beliefs or cultural norms.And though it has become widely known in Western nations in the late 20th century due to the sexual†¦show more content†¦They’ve made the physical alteration seeing as they had developed the characteristics of the opposite sex in terms of behavior, clothing, thoughts, perspectives, way of life as a whole. To be more specific and clarified about this point, a person who went through the physical alteration and became a woman wrote a booklet on the subject seeing as she had personal experience; in this booklet she says and I quote: â€Å"I am a woman who, probably due to some endocrine malfunction before birth, was born with male genitals. Since our society assumes that gender and sex always correspond, I was wrongly assigned to the gender pigeon-hole called male by a doctor who looked at my genitals instead of my mind. Throughout my childhood I knew perfectly well that I was really a girl (after all, its my mind, not my genitals, that make me the person that I am), but because my body seemed to insist otherwise, I was forced to try to fit in to the gender role of a boy. This produced intense unhappiness and almost totally ruined my life until I accepted the reality of my situation and underwent gender reassignment as anShow MoreRelatedGender Identity And The Transgender Orientation138 6 Words   |  6 Pagesbehaviors develop in later years. These roles are largely based on social experiences and inner feelings. Generally, the behaviors are consistent with the gender assigned at birth, however; there are some children who are cross-gendered and show behaviors that are opposite to the sex assigned to them at birth (Pardo, 2008). Most of the transgender people identify their gender identity during adolescence, research studies suggest that transgender males and females go through a process of dissonance, explorationRead MoreGender Identification : An Exploration Of The Transgender Group1625 Words   |  7 PagesGender Identification: An Exploration of the Transgender Group and Their Relationship in Society Gender identification and expression of transgender individuals has become controversial in America because of lack of knowledge and societal acculturation of this group. As society continues to connect gender identity with sexual identity, those who identify as transgender are forced to conform to the cultural norms of society or choose not to openly portray their gender expression. Although the mediaRead MoreGender Discrimination And The Transgender Community1600 Words   |  7 Pagesexpress themselves, etc. Dalton Conley explains that gender â€Å"[Is] a collectively defined guidebook that humans use to make distinctions among themselves, to separate one being from another, and to comprehend an otherwise fuzzy mass of individuals.† (279) However, when this â€Å"collectively defined guidebook† is mildly altered, many individuals are confused and respond negatively towards these changes. Transgenders are individuals who identify with a gender that does not correspond with their sex, and soRead MoreThe Concept of Gender and Gender Identity1223 Words   |  5 Pages I am interested in the concept of gender and the deeper meaning of being considered a transgendered person. I feel that a lot of people do not know or care to know about these topics on a more in depth level. People who close their eyes to the idea that a person could be born with the physical aspects of a male yet have the psychological aspects of a female and vice versa, tend to be the ones who say that those people are going against nature or god. Discriminating against people on the principlesRead MoreAge Groups And The Lifecycle1432 Words   |  6 PagesChildren (Ages 3-12). Gender labels are placed on children prior to and after birth as we are taught about gender binary in an â€Å"either/or† fashion (Janssen Erickson-Schroth, 2013) during early years of development. For example, the newborn is either a boy or a girl and this predisposes children to gender specific ideologies. Gender revealing parties and baby showers are notorious for continuing traditional societal viewpoints of binary assumptions – girl or boy. Gender roles are established atRead MoreTransgender1370 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿ Transgender/Transsexual Olivia Warehime Tarleton State University ABSTRACT A transgender is someone that believes that their gender does not match their anatomy that they were born with. Transgender believes that they’re in someone else’s body. For example someone that was born a male believes he’s a female and vice versa. Keyword: heterosexism, LGBT, Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Prevention Why are people transgender? ACN, S. (2011, February 27). Health experts believe that beingRead MoreA Research Study On Transgender Orientation1661 Words   |  7 Pagesterminology throughout gender is constantly evolving as is the understanding of the growing issues and therefore is inconsistent throughout the literature. Transgender may refer to people who embrace a different gender identity on a full time basis to that appointed at birth, which may be ambiguous or gender specific, but without any medical intervention. Transsexual is often used to differentiate those who have taken medical intervention to live full time in the fixed gender different to that assignedRead MoreThe Psychological Factors Of The Bathroom Bill1279 Words   |  6 PagesThe Psychological Factors of the â€Å"Bathroom Bill† Next month will make a year that everyone has kept their eye out on North Carolina due to the House Bill 2, also known as the â€Å"bathroom bill,† they passed March 23rd of 2016. The particular bill requires transgender people to use the restroom of the gender assigned to them at birth. It also â€Å"banned any minimum-wage increases or anti-discrimination statutes local governments might pass† (McCLELLAND 40). Not only did this aggravate the LGBT communityRead MoreIn This Paper, I Will Discuss Transgender Children, Specifically1041 Words   |  5 PagesIn this paper, I will discuss transgender children, specifically contextual variables that impact psychological adjustment. Define stress, stressors, and coping strategies, and contemplate their relationship to health and wellness of these. Identify and describe social psychological phenomena. Describe relationships, lifestyles, and issues of parenting and longevity. Identify gender differences and explore gender role stereotypes. Examine evidence-based strategies from each of the selected articlesRead MoreAs Times Are Modernizing The Ideology That One Must Be1369 Words   |  6 Pages1999 there were very few H.R. transgender policies provided by US employers. As the years have gone by and almost twenty years later more and more Human Resource policies are being adopted and implemented in defense of not only those who in the lesbian or gay community, but for those with gender identity and/or expression that differs from that of an individual’s birth-specifically transgender to fight against discrimination and inequality in the workplace. Transgender issues are particularly important

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Low Carbon Emission Family Hatchback Development Engineering Essay Free Essays

string(24) " 180 50 to 120 Table 2\." In this quickly developing universe, the chief menace that is being faced is on fossil fuel. As every twelvemonth base on balls by, the sum of fuels used are traveling up the grade of the old old ages. If this rate keeps increasing, the dodo fuels will be wholly depleted to a province that these fossil fuels will merely be known in names and due to the increased usage of these fuels have led to the all sorts of pollution. We will write a custom essay sample on Low Carbon Emission Family Hatchback Development Engineering Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now In the recent survey, it was proved that automotive Fieldss are one with the greater ingestion and fouling rate compared to other Fieldss utilizing fossil fuels. And, one of those pollution jeopardies is addition in C footmark, which is the entire sum nursery gases produced. In order to confront the approaching menace, a new construct has been developed which would cut down the ingestion of fossil fuels and pollution jeopardies. A construct of an electric auto with lower limit or zero emanation and eco friendly characteristics accommodating to the nature protection is to be developed. 1.0 Purposes: To develop, a construct on a household hatch back vehicle with low C emanation which is powered by electricity and designed for an urban thrust rhythm with aid of quality map deployment ( QFD ) 1.1 Aim: To make proficient research in order to go cognizant of current developments in the market ; To fix a specification for a low C vehicle ; To develop several constructs ; To choose one construct utilizing QFD ; To fix a Gantt chart for the construct development stage of the undertaking. 1.3 SPECIFICATIONS OF THE VEHICLE: Table 1.3.1 is the Final specification of the LCV. Further study will explicate how these specifications were finalised. Length 3650mm Width 1550mm Height 1450mm Wheelbase 2650mm Minimum land clearance 170mm Seating capacity 5 people Kerb weight 1200kg Max loaded weight 1550kg Battery Lithium ion, 1000 rhythms Rated power 80kW Maximum torsion 448Nm Scope 120 stat mis minimum under normal urban conditions Human body frame Aluminium honey comb 1.0 Conceptual Approach: QFD for Electric Vehicle: Table 1.1.1 is the QFD of the whole vehicle. The relation between Controllable parametric quantities and Customers A ; Stake holders demands has be rated consequently, where 9-strongest, 3-moderate, 1-weak, and 0-no relation. This gives an thought on which governable parametric quantity we will hold to work more. The parametric quantities Battery ( 342 ) , Energy Storage Capacity ( 268 ) , Drive Motor ( 231 ) , Wear Resistance ( 239 ) , Price ( 303 ) shows maximal absolute importance, hence, choice process will be carried on, while giving maximal precedence to these parametric quantities. 1.2 Fish Bone: The Fish Bone diagram shows a mode in which over aims will be achieved. Gantt chart of Concept Phase: Practically talking, Concept stage may take 2 to 3 old ages to finish. Chart 1.2.1 is our basic Concept Phase Gantt Chart demoing how a construct of a undertaking is developed ; if we were suppose to make a existent paradigm. 1.4 Gantt chart of the Group Time Plan: Chart 1.4.1 shows clip planning of the group to execute different undertakings by group members. Therefore, from the Gantt chart now we know that which undertakings are over lapping the other undertakings ( blue in coloring material ) , and which undertakings start at the terminal of peculiar undertakings ( ruddy in coloring material ) . 2.0 Batteries: Batteries are one of the most of import things, when it comes to an electric vehicle, as they are merely beginning of energy. Hence, choice of proper batteries plays an of import function for the operation of all the systems in an electric vehicle. This subdivision will cover some thoughts, which were used for choice of our batteries. 2.1 Selection Procedure: Basic thing to get down with was to look into the demands, harmonizing to the market needs. Table 2.1.1 shows demands of EV batteries depending on different features and parametric quantities, adopted by USABC ( United States Advanced Battery Consortium ) . Battery Requirements as per USABC: Table 2.1.1 ( Anderman, Fritz, A ; MacArthur, 2000 ) In our instance we will be sing demands related to long term. Further choice process will be more or less based on these demands. 2.2 Available Electric Vehicle Batteries: A. Nickel Metal Hydride: Nickel Metal Hydride batteries passed assorted bench trials and were best among other campaigners for electric vehicle batteries. They were about capable of giving a calendar life of about 10 old ages. But disadvantages of utilizing Nickel Metal Hydride was that they are holding really low specific energy 60 to 80Wh/kg and therefore a lower scope for the vehicle to run in individual charge. For acquiring higher driving range the size of the batteries will hold to be increased and finally the weight besides increases. B. Lithium ion: And where the Nickel Metal Hydride batteries were neglecting Lithium ion passed, hence they were with every good belongingss of Nickel Metal Hydride and some more advantages. Lithium ion became more suited option to be used for electric vehicle batteries and as they have specific energy runing up to 450Wh/kg and better specific power. Most of the present and approaching electric vehicles are utilizing Lithium ion engineering. C. Lithium Polymer: Lithium polymer shows the potency of being cheaper than Lithium ion and Nickel Metal Hydrides batteries as cost of active stuffs is low in its instance. Besides holding higher specific energy about 650Wh/kg. But, still the procedure of fabricating these batteries is really complicated along with high cost electrolyte. Besides the working temperatures of these batteries restrict them from being a better option ( Delucchi A ; Lipman, 2001 ) . Hence, the most executable option is the Lithium ion ( Table 2.2.1 ) . Features Nickel Metal Hydride Lithium Ion Lithium Polymer Specific Energy ( Wh/kg ) 60 to 80 150 to 450 Up to 650 Specific Power ( W/kg ) 150 to 200 150 to 800 300 Cycles ( 100 % DoD to 80 % of initial capacity ) 600 600 to 1000 200 to 600 Nominal Capacity ( Ah ) 90 100 to 180 50 to 120 Table 2.2.1 Characteristics Table ( Anderman, Fritz, A ; MacArthur, 2000 ) 2.3 Selected Lithium Ion: QFD chart for batteries: Chart 2.3.1 Battery QFD Our battery Requirements and QFD chart gives a clear thought that Lithium ion battery is better than Nickel metal Hydride and Lithium polymer. Besides, from the QFD chart it is really much clear that, Battery Size ( 291 ) , Product Life ( 156 ) , Price ( 116 ) , Durability ( 115 ) , and Charging Speed ( 105 ) , have maximum absolute importance and comparative importance. Hence, for make up one’s minding the concluding specifications of the batteries these parametric quantities will be given more importance as compared to others. 2.4 Trade Offs Among Different Lithium Ion Battery Technologies: Lithium ion itself has many different types of discrepancies or different battery engineerings in it, therefore, farther attack is working on more specific restraints of the batteries. Table 2.4.1 ( Dinger A ; Martin, 2010 ) Safety: Most of import factor for EV batteries is the safety. Chemical reactions taking topographic point inside the batteries, while they are working or because of soaking consequences in high temperatures, which may ensue in fire. Table 2.4.1 shows, Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminium ( NCA ) has least safety features, whereas Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt ( NMC ) and Lithium Manganese Spinel ( LMO ) have moderate safety features and, Lithium Titanate ( LTO ) and Lithium Iron Phosphate ( LFP ) have highest safety characters. Life Span: Life span can be considered in two ways one figure of times batteries being to the full charged and dispatch boulder clay it is degraded to 80 % of its to the full charged original capacity and 2nd figure of old ages battery can be used. Performance: Performance in instance of battery is fundamentally how good the battery will execute in different climatic conditions. Specific Energy: Specific Energy is capacity for hive awaying energy per kg of weight. Gasoline has about 100 times more than that of the batteries. Hence, specific energy can besides be make up one’s minding factor for size and weight of the batteries. Higher specific energy can ensue in low weight and smaller size of the batteries. Specific Power: Specific Power is the sum of power delivered per kg of mass. Specific is less of import as compared to specific energy in electric vehicles. Cost: As for now, the Li ion battery packs has cost estimations is between ?700 to ?850 per KWh, but with addition in technological development and competition among different makers, the fabrication costs of the batteries may diminish. The mark shown by USABC is ?250 per KWh by 2020, but someway Nissan is already claiming of supplying battery battalions at same figures with Nissan Leaf. So cost factor is likely to toss off really shortly. Which is better? LTO and LFP do hold really less safety jobs, but when it comes to specific energy they fall behind. And NCA is cost effectual, with higher specific energy, specific power and life span, but lags really much behind in safety. LMO has all the factors average every bit compared to others and short life span. Therefore, sing the demands ( Table 2.1.1 ) , Characteristics Table ( Table 2.2.1 ) , QFD ( chart 2.3.1 ) and all the factors, NMC is the most suited Lithium ion battery engineering. They have moderate safety characteristics, but this can be overcome by utilizing proper battery shell, chilling system and temperature monitoring devices, in sensible cost scope ( Anderman, Fritz, A ; MacArthur, 2000 ) ( Dinger A ; Martin, 2010 ) ( Delucchi A ; Lipman, 2001 ) . 2.5 Battery Manufacturers: Before specifying our concluding battery specifications looking for Battery makers and battery constellations these makers have, is a good thought. Industries have their ain R A ; D sectors, and they welcome the demands of the client. Below are some makers who can supply us with Lithium-ion batteries for our Electric Vehicle. China: J A ; A EEMB LT Energy Japan: Automotive Energy Supply Corporation GS Yuasa Corporation ( Momentum Technologies LLC, 1995-2010 ) 2.6 Battery Specifications: Our choice process therefore, leads us to battery specifications which will carry through our demands. Table 2.6.1 shows our approximative battery specifications. This may alter in footings of size, weight and cost, or even chemical belongingss depending on the makers. Specific Energy 200Wh/kg Specific Power 550Wh/kg Cycles 1000 Rated Capacity 100-180 Ah Nominal Voltage 3.7 V Charging Time 3 to 6 hours and 30 mins for rapid bear downing Weight 90x67x220 ( millimeter ) Dimension 150kg approx Cost 250 to ?300 per kWh / ?7500 to ?9000 per battery battalion 2.7 High Voltage Electrical Distribution System: Electrical Loads in an car can split into two classs – propulsion and non-propulsion. Propulsion burden chiefly consists of motor and/or generator and Non-propulsion tonss include warmers, lamps, power Windowss etc. Maximal power is required for the propulsion loads which can be up to 100KW. Table 2.7.1 gives an approximative thought for power distribution in our instance. Components Power Input ( kilowatt ) Electric Motor 80 HVAC 8 Non-propulsion tonss 3 Entire 91 Table 2.7.1 ( Automotive Handbook, 2007 ) The electric vehicle has power coachs at different electromotive forces runing from lower to higher values and can be every bit high as 300 Vs. Hence, proper power direction and distribution system will be adopted in order to run into the demands of our vehicle constituents ( Fig 2.7.2 ) . Generic Automotive Power/Energy Management and Distribution system ( Shen, Masrur, Garg, A ; Monroe, 2003 ) 3.0 MOTORS AND POWER ELECTRONICS 3.1 Working rule of motors ( Leitman A ; Brant, 2009 ) : When electric potency is applied, the twists generate the magnetic Fieldss which cause the armature to revolve and thereby, generate power. The efficiency of the electric motor ranges from 85 to 98 % . 3.2 Present twenty-four hours EV ‘s: Electron volt Type OF MOTOR RATED POWER RATED TORQUE Nissan foliage AC lasting magnet synchronal motor 80 kilowatt 280Nm Mitsubishi iMiev AC lasting magnet synchronal motor 47kW 180Nm Subaru Stella AC lasting magnet synchronal motor 47kW 185Nm Thinkcity 3-phase asynchronous 34kW 140Nm 3.3 Propulsion system design ( Larminie A ; John, 2003 ) : Constraints Variables Maximum speed Rolling opposition Maximal per centum class Aerodynamic drag co-efficient Initial acceleration Wheel radius Rated speed on a given incline Vehicle mass Maximum gradability Percentage class 3.4 Advantages of electric motors over IC engines: Full torsion at low velocities Instantaneous power evaluation is about 2 to 3 times the rated power of motor Excellent acceleration with a nominally rated motor 3.5 Types of motors ( Larminie A ; John, 2003 ) : Motors are fundamentally categorized into DC motors and AC motors. 3.51 DC motors: Extensively used boulder clay 1990 ‘s Has 2 sets of windings- stator and rotor The torsion is maintained by commutator coppices Weaving in the rotor is called armature and twist in stator is called field twist Advantages: Ease of control due to one-dimensionality Capability for independent torsion and flux control Established fabrication engineering Disadvantages: Brush wear that leads to high care Low upper limits velocity EMI due to commutator action Low power to burden ratio Low efficiency Larger size 3.52 AC motors: Armature circuit is on stator which eliminates the demand for commutator and coppices Types: Synchronous – lasting magnet type, electromagnet type Asynchronous – squirrel coop, lesion rotor. 3.53 Permanent magnet type AC motors ( Hussain, 2003 ) : They use magnets to bring forth air-gap magnetic flux alternatively of field spirals. Types: Permanent magnet synchronal motors Sinusoidal brushless DC motor Trapezoidal or square moving ridge motor Advantages: Supply a loss-free excitement in a compact manner without complications of connexions to the external stationary electric circuits High power to burden ratio High torsion to inertia ratio Excellent field weakening features Disadvantages: Not economical Sensitive to temperature and lade fluctuations 3.54 Switched reluctance motors: Doubly salient, singly aroused reluctance motor with independent stage twists on the stator. Generally stator and rotor are magnetic steel laminations with rotor holding no magnets or twists. Advantages: Simple and low cost machine building Wider changeless power part Bidirectional currents are non necessary, therefore lesser figure of power switches Most of the losingss appear in stator, which is easier to chill High torsion to inertia ratio Torque-speed features of the motor can be tailored as per demand Maximum allowable rotor temperature is high Disadvantages: Torque rippling and accoustic noise observed Particular convertor and higher terminal connexions required, therefore non economical. 3.55 Choice: Torsion to inertia ratio Power to burden ratio Field weakening Torque rippling Acoustic noise Peak torsion efficiency Monetary value and care cost I? motor definition standard DC motors 6 3 3 6 3 6 3 9 39 PM Synchronous motors 9 9 9 9 6 9 Hence it is better to integrate PM synchronal motor or Switched reluctance motor in the electric auto. After mentioning the above chart, its apparent that PM synchronal AC motors are more suited for moderate power demands. 3.6 Power electronics in electric auto ( Hussain, 2003 ) : Electric motor thrust converts stiff DC battery electromotive force to DC/ AC electromotive force with a RMS value and frequence that can be adjusted harmonizing to the control bid. Electric motor thrust: Its typically is a combination of, POWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTER + ASSOCIATED CONTROLLER Power electronic accountant: It is made up of solid province devices and grips flow of bulk power from the beginning to motor input terminuss. It functions as ON/OFF switch to change over fixed supply electromotive force into variable electromotive force and variable frequence supply. They constitute of high-power and rapid response semiconducting material devices. Drive accountant: It accepts bid and feedback signals, processes it and generates gate exchanging signals for the power devices of the convertor. It is made up of microprocessors and digital signal processors. Figure: Block diagram of motor thrust ( Hussain, 2003 ) Figure: DC-DC and DC-AC convertors ( Hussain, 2003 ) 3.61 Power electronic switches ( Hussain, 2003 ) : BJT: Bi-polar junction transistors have better power evaluations and first-class conduction, but their thrust circuit is complicated as they are current-driven. MOSFET: Metal oxide semiconducting material field consequence transistor has simpler drive circuits and higher shift frequence, but their upper limit available power evaluations are lesser than BJT. IGBT: Insulated gate bipolar transistor incorporates the advantaged of both BJT and MOSFET and are extensively used in modern twenty-four hours electric autos. SCR: Silicon controlled thyristor have higher power evaluations but requires a commuting circuit to exchange them Off. GTO: Gate turn-off SCR is a type of jury-rigged SCR that can be switched off through a gate signal but their current ingestion is typically 4 to 5 times the current required to exchange them on. MCT: MOS controlled thyristor combines the conductivity features of SCR and gating features of MOSFET. Diodes: They are two-terminal semiconducting material devices and are used in concurrence with other accountant devices. Their map is to barricade the contrary electromotive force flow and supply current way for inductive circuits. 3.7 A typical PM synchronal motor thrust construction: ( Hussain, 2003 ) LIGHT WEIGHT STRUCTURES 4.1 INTRODUCTION TO STEELS Sheet steel has remained the chief stuff used for the building of the organic structure of a motor vehicle of all time since mass production began earlier this century. Steel is comparatively is inexpensive and can be economically formed to do parts with complicated forms and has a high grade of rigidness, higher clang impact opposition and high elastic modulus. In the recent yearss, aluminum metals have been extensively used for car constituents. The metal has aluminium as base metal with hints of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, manganese, Si, Ti and Zn added to it. The proportions are differed harmonizing to the demand of the terminal merchandise and these metals are about replacing the steels in car sector. The indispensable factors behind this development have been the demands to cut down fuel ingestion by cut downing the weight of auto and increased rider safety ( C.Dasarathy, 2010 ) . 4.2 STEEL USED IN AUTOMOBILEA ­A ­A ­ As sheet As forged subdivisions As wire merchandises Hot rolled sheet t=1.5-7.00mm for organic structure panels, closings, biw parts, sumps, fuel armored combat vehicles, fumes parts. Crank shafts, linking roads, axle parts, tie rods, valves. For tyre support, springs, etc For organic structure, under organic structure structural parts cold rolled -annealed -coated sheet=0.5-1.5mm 4.3 ALUMINIUM Aluminum is a metallic component, and its construction is similar to most other metals. It is ductile and malleable due to its polycrystalline construction. Aluminum is made of grains which interlock when the metal is cooled from molten. Each grain comprises of rows of atoms in ordered lattice agreement, giving each grain an isotropic construction. Although the different grains are slightly indiscriminately arranged with in grain boundaries organizing during the chilling procedure, the atoms within each crystal are usually aligned which makes the metal isotropic, like the single grains. ( Sam Davyson ) 4.4 ALLOYING ADDITIONS FOR AUTOMOBILES A little measure of other elements added to aluminium in order to modify its basic belongingss. They are chromium, Cu, Fe, Mg, manganese, Si, Ti and Zn. These elements can be grouped into those with high solid solubility and those with low solid solubility. 4.5 PROPERTIES SPECIAL STEEL A ; ALUMINIUM ALLOYS Properties Particular steel Aluminium metal Weight A ; denseness Heavier in weight with denseness of 7.85gm/ Lighter in weight with denseness approx 1/3rdof that of steel. The denseness is about 2.72gm/ Elastic modulus A ; flexing specific stiffness Elastic modulus of 210 Gpa longitudinal i.e. immature ‘s modulus which 3times more than that of aluminum. But flexing stiffness is more than aluminum which provide more advantage for utilizing in constructions like forepart clang tracks, b-pillars etc. Elastic modulus of 70 Gpa. It has got shock soaking up inclination so largely used in car bumpers. It is used as outer tegument surface in car it has greater specific bending stiffness for level merchandises. Thermal conduction Less thermic conductive than aluminum 3 times more thermic conductive than steel doing it a pick in heat exchange applications. Fatigue Fatigue public presentation of steel is more than twice that of aluminum. Steels such as DUAL PHASE 600 AND TRIP 600 have endurance bounds of 307 Mpa A ; 336 Mpa severally. Structural aluminum class of 5XXX series does non make an endurance bound and go on degrading at higher rhythms. Aluminium grade 5052-0 ranges 124 Mpa at 500 million rhythms. Formability High formable scope than aluminum doing it suited for vehicles titling and overall fabrication hardiness. Formability is about 2/3rdof that of steel. Electrical conduction Nowhere near aluminium electrical music director in power transmittal. High electrical conduction for usage as lines, transformers, coach bars etc. Coefficient of reflection Lesser reflective than aluminum. Excellent reflector of radiant energy throughout full scope of wave lengths. Light reflecting capacity of over 80 % doing it suited for light fixtures. In roofing, it reflect high sum of Sun heat advancing cool inside ambiance in summer. Non-magnetism Steels in general are magnetic. Austenitic chromium steel steels are non magnetic with AISI 304LN, 316LN some steel classs possessing really low magnetic permeableness for usage in constructions near to sensitive electronic devices or medical equipment. It is extremely nonmagnetic and therefore happening extended usage for electrical shielding such as coach saloon, magnetic compass lodgings, computing machine phonograph record fabrication, parabolic aerial etc. High temperature opposition Steels like T-11, T-22, martens tic chromium steel and austenitic chromium steel steel like AISI 310 are extremely creep resistant with ability to defy distortion at high temperatures. Steels incorporating 8 % aluminum. Poor high temperature opposition Low temperature stamina Steels in general posses hapless low temperature stamina. Shows first-class stamina at low temperatures happening usage in infrigidation. Tensile strength Much higher than aluminum and its metals. Tensile strength of pure aluminum is really much lower but, the belongings can be improved by add-ons of Mn, Si, Cu A ; Mg and through annealing aluminum metal has a tensile strength of 295 Mpa. Output strength Very much higher than aluminium metal The mechanical belongingss are improved by add-ons of Mn, Si, Cu, A ; Mg and through annealing. Machinability Shows good machinability in high sulfur steels and lead bearing steels. Show first-class machinability Hardness Harder than aluminum denting inclination less than aluminum Lower hardness than steel. Muffling features Ability to rarefy air bone noise due to its immense mass over aluminum. Inability to rarefy air borne noise compared to steel Strain rate sensitiveness High strain rate sensitive exposing positive strain rate public presentation. Not strain rate medium and has hapless clang worthiness. Corrosion A ; weather opposition Austenitic chromium steel steel like AISI 304 A ; 316 shows first-class corrosion opposition. Shows good gal vanic, cavity and inter-granular corrosion opposition Good corrosion opposition and the rate of corrosion is 1/25thof high opposition steels. It is first-class conditions resistant. Non toxicity Austenitic chromium steel steels 300 series are known for their non -toxic nature. Tin home base steels are used for continuing nutrient, comestible oils etc. Highly non-toxic. Aluminium foil wrapping 500 foil of 0.007mm thickness is wholly impermeable. Aesthetic entreaty Excellent for austenitic chromium steel steels with low care costs. Attractive visual aspect with low care costs. Discoveries use in facing, hardware etc. Table 4.4.1 ( B.V.R Raja ) 4.6 CHASSIS There is batch of accomplishment and engineering behind the development and usage of honeycomb human body. The typical portion of aluminum tegument in honeycomb panel is good in certain countries. Honeycomb human body can take great important tonss on border. But this ca n’t take much burden in 90 grades to that great extent. The design panel is immune to all conditions conditions although they are non designed to expose to atmosphere. The bonding between the honeycomb and the aluminum tegument is really strong to H2O resistant but the bonding is non H2O cogent evidence. So when planing the human body we must take effectual stairss to forestall to maintain route H2O and salts out off the panels and articulations to avoid corrosion and harm to human body. More proficient accomplishment is required while repairing the panels. To the specific demands, you needed to attach the panels without impacting their physical belongings. We ca n’t concentrate or sleep together the pa nels together for perfect bonding. ( Cliffbeer, 2007 ) 4.7 RACK AND PINION SYSTEM In rack and pinion type, the cogwheel on the maneuvering column ‘s terminal is similar to the pinion cogwheel in the differential cut on an angle, and meshed with a steel saloon ( the rack ) toothed on one side. The rack is mounted parallel to the forepart axle and as the maneuvering wheel bends, it operates straight on the tie rods without the usage of a pitman arm, loafer or intermediate ( or relay ) rod. Adding a power aid to this type of guidance is rather simple. The power Piston is really portion of the rack, and the rack lodging Acts of the Apostless as the cylinder. The control valve is located in the pinion lodging. Rotation of the guidance shaft and pinion turns the valve to direct hydraulic force per unit area to either terminal of the rack Piston. 4.8 MACPHERSON STRUT FRONT SUSPENSION The most widely used forepart suspension system in autos of European beginning.The system comprises of a strut-type spring and daze absorber jazz band, which pivots on a ball articulation on the individual, lower arm The prance itself is the supporting member in this assembly, with the spring and daze absorber simply executing their responsibility as oppose to really keeping the auto up. 4.9 MULTI-LINK REAR SUSPENSION This is the latest embodiment of the dual wishing bone system. The basic rule of it is the same, but alternatively of solid upper and lower wishing bones, each ‘arm ‘ of the wishing bone is a separate point. These are joined at the top and underside of the spindle therefore organizing the wishing bone form. The super-weird thing about this is that as the spindle turns for maneuvering, it alters the geometry of the suspension by torquing all four suspension weaponries. ( Chris Longhurst, 1994-2004 ) 4.10 AERODYNAMICS Aeromechanicss encompass all the air flows that base on balls over, around, and through a vehicle they can be subdivided in those impacting performance/ fuel ingestion, comfort, chilling, vehicle kineticss, directional stableness and perceptibility safety. ( Automotive Handbook, 2007 ) 4.11 PRODUCT SPECIFICATION Component Material Human body Aluminum honeycomb Body Steel, Aluminium Exterior panels, Bumpers Aluminum, plastic Interior panels Plastic ( ABS, PVC ) Wheels Aluminum Front suspension MACPHERSON STRUT Rear suspension Multi-link 5.0 Energy Recovery and System In a Low Carbon Vehicle, the energy lost or used, if recovered, could do the system more efficient. In order to retrieve the energy, two types of system are applied. Solar Energy Panels Regenerative Braking System 5.1 Solar Energy Panels ( Darrell D. Ebbing, 2007 ) ( SPI, 2005-2010 ) ( Inventables, 2007 ) Solar energy is the largely available energy in the universe. Taking this into cognition, we introduce solar panels which convert solar energy into electric energy and are stored in the battery. There are two sort of solar panels used: – Transparent and flexible solar panels Plate type solar panels The Semi transparent and flexible solar panels will be placed on each Windowss of the vehicle. So that the both the side of solar panel can be utilised consequently and with the aid of the green house consequence, it helps in bear downing the battery from both the sides. The Plate type solar panels will be placed on the roof of the vehicle and for the use of maximal solar energy All the charges obtained from the solar panel will be stored in the battery utilizing a control unit. Power available 20W ( Plate type solar panels ) 10-14W ( Semi transparent and flexible solar panels ) Charging Time 6-8 hour ( 45 % – 60 % ) Nominal Voltage 12v ( approx. ) Maximal Power Voltage 17.5v ( approx. ) Maximal Power Current 1.1A ( approx. ) Open Circuit Voltage 21.0v ( approx. ) Short Circuit Current 1.3A ( approx. ) Cost 400 ( approx. ) Table 5.1.1 Specification of the solar panels used. ( navitron, 2004 ) 5.2 Regenerative Braking System ( Boxwell, 2010 ) ( Brain, 1998 ) Regenerative braking system is an alternate manner used to bring forth electrical energy from kinetic energy produced through braking. This energy is produced by the rearward rotary motion of the motor used in the vehicle. As vehicle go down the hill or into halting point by braking, the electronic circuit or accountant would do the motor rotate backward with the aid of the tyres and in this instance, the motor which rotates the wheel would move as a generator to bring forth the electricity. This charge produced will be stored in the battery utilizing a control unit. By this system, the energy lost would be recovered and stored, therefore increasing the efficiency of the vehicle ( Automotive constituents and parts, 2008 ) 6.0 Parasitic Losses ( Vehicle Technologies Program, 2009 ) Parasitic loss is chiefly known as the loss of the energy in the system. For electric autos, the parasitic loss is chiefly due to the air current opposition and retarding force, braking and turn overing opposition. It even includes the clash and wears in the vehicle, thermal ( heat ) loads, operation of subsidiary tonss ( air conditioning, warmers, infrigidation, etc. ) . ( Inventables, 2007 ) This parasitic loss can vastly impact the efficiency of the vehicle. Electrical Consumer Power end product Average power end product Electric motor Radio 80kW 20W 75kW 20W Side marker lamps Low beam ( lordotic beam ) License – home base lamp, tail lamps Indicator lamp, instruments Heated rear window Interior warming, fan Electrical radiator ventilator 8W 110W 30W 22W 200W 120W 120W 7W 90W 25W 20W 60W 50W 30W Windshield wiper Stop lamps Turn signal lamps Fog lamps Rear fog warning lamp 50W 42W 42W 110W 21W 10W 11W 5W 20W 2W Entire Installed electrical burden demands Average electrical burden demands 80,895W 75,350W Table 6.1 demoing the ingestion of constituents of an Electric vehicle ( Automotive Handbook, 2007 ) Therefore the parasitic losingss occurred in the electrical constituents = 80,895-75,350=5,545W Hence there is an approximative parasitic loss of 5kW and more in this system. 7.0 HVAC ( Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning ) HVAC ( Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning ) is a engineering that deals with the indoor or automotive environment control with the rules of Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics and Heat transportation. Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning are closely interrelated in order to supply a thermic comfort in the indoors. Since it is used to command the quality of air it is besides referred to as Climate control. HVAC is non merely of import in the design of medium to big industrial and office edifices and in marine environments but besides in cars such as autos and trucks where safe andA healthyA conditions are regulated with temperature and humidness. Since, HVAC systems account for so much electric energy usage, the efficiency of the system has to be improved through proper design, installing and scheduled care. HAVAC Systems perform conditioning the air in the undermentioned ways Removing and adding heat. Adding and taking wet. Volume of air flow. Speed of air flow. Removing Impurities in air. Fig 7.1 Ventilation System. ( National Research Council Canada ) Aim Supplying an acceptable degree of tenancy comfort Care of good air quality Minimum energy demands Minimal cost Proper air flow, heating and chilling. 7.1 HVAC TYPES The move to battery powered electric autos poses several challenges when it comes to climate control inside the vehicle. The enormously inefficient internal burning engine ‘s coolant system can easy be tapped for cabin warming are now gone while powering a 3 – 5 kilowatts air conditioning compressor in an EV consumes merely 200 wh/mile atA main road velocities. There are different types of HVACs used in Electric Vehicles. THERMOELECTRIC DEVICES FOR AIR CONDITIONING The thermoelectric HVAC will be optimised to supply the occupant comfort while cut downing fuel ingestion and nursery gas emanations. To maximise energy efficiency, the thermoelectric HVAC system will utilize a distributed warming or chilling design that targets single residents and reduces temperature conditioning to unoccupied rider seating. Tetrafluoroethane ( R-134a ) refrigerant gas is the most common working fluid in vehicular air conditioners since 1995. R-134a has 1300 times greater nursery gas impact than CO2. Car air conditioners leak 10 to 70 g/year. Thermoelectric HVAC systems significantly cut down adult male ‘s part to greenhouse gases while bettering fuel economic system. 7-8 billion gallons/year of fuel usage for automotive A/C. Approximately 6 % of our national responsibility fuel usage ( ELECTRIC VEHICLE NEWS, 2009 ) . Climate CONTROLLED SEATS ( CCS ) This HVAC engineering heats and cools environing constructions such as the star, Windowss, flooring, and place dorsums. These systems consume between 3.5-5 KW. To cut down this burden, heating or chilling can be plumbed straight into the seats. These seats are called Climate Controlled Seats ( CCS ) . Since the place has direct contact with the resident it has much higher thermic conduction compared to air which is a hapless music director. With direct contact chilling or heating burden per individual could be reduced to less than 700 Watts compared to 5,000 W to heat/cool the full cabin ( Fairbanks, THERMOELECTRIC DEVELOPMENTS FOR VEHICULAR APPLICATION, 2006 ) . Fig. 7.1.1 Climate Control Seats. ( Fairbanks, 2006 ) Fig 7.1.2 HVAC System in Electric Car. ( Electric VEHICLE NEWS, 2009 ) Advantage This program presents scenarios for increased usage of alternate fuels and vehicle engineering efficiency betterments in order to cut down power ingestion and nursery gas emanations. This system will show a lower limit of 33 % betterment in the energy consumed by a vehicle air conditioning system. ZT ( figure of virtue ) ~ 1 ; COP ~ 0.9-1.0 ; Distributed HVAC System ; P ~ 2 kilowatt ; Power Off Alternator Decreases ~ 0.8 mpg/vehicle ( 0.8/27.5 ~ 0.029 ) low Alternator Efficiency ZT ~ 2 ; COP ~ 2 ; Distributed HVAC System ; P ~ 1 KW ; Power Off Alternator Additions ~ 1.1 mpg/vehicle ( 1.1/27.5 ~ 0.04 ) Either ZT Case ; Power From Thermoelectric Generator Converting Engine Exhaust Heat to Electricity Additions ~ 3 mpg/vehicle ( 3/27.5 ~ 0.11 ) ( Fairbanks, THERMOELECTRIC DEVELOPMENTS FOR VEHICULAR APPLICATION, 2006 ) PELTIER EFFECT THERMOELECTRIC Peltier faculties can be used to bring forth electricity, to supply air conditioning or they can be used to supply warming. In fact, Peltier faculties make it possible to construct various warming and chilling devices for applications that require an energy efficiency solution. Peltier faculties are thermoelectric ( TE ) devices that can be used to supply chilling or to bring forth electricity, depending on the application. The faculties work harmonizing to the Peltier/Seebeck consequence, which provides chilling by go throughing a current across two dissimilar stuffs, that ‘s on opposite sides of the device. The current flow causes one side of the device to go hot and the other to go really cold. A Peltier air conditioning solution can be built by configuring the Peltier faculties to accept a current, which will chill one side of the faculty and heat the other. In this constellation, Peltier faculties are frequently referred to as TEC or thermoelectric ice chests. The hot side of the Peltier faculty will necessitate a heat sink and a chilling fan to forestall overheating. The cool side of the Peltier faculty can so supply chilling by doing the Ac fan to blow air across them. The same faculties can besides supply warming by altering the way of the current flow. This will do the hot side to go cold and the cold side to go hot, which makes Peltier faculties an all unit of ammunition warming and air conditioning solution ( Fairbanks, CAR and Vehicle Technologies Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy US Department of Energy Washington, D.C ) . 7.2 AUXILIARY POWER UNIT An Auxiliary Power Unit ( APU ) is used in the motor and electric vehicles in-order to supply energy for the vehicle other than get downing up of engines. It is used for runing the power Windowss and Cabin light even before get downing up of engine. The traditional APU is powered by fuel, which is less efficient and causes more pollution than the emerging battery powered APU ‘s. Fuel cell APU is a typical type which uses fuel cell as a beginning of energy but involves no burning and so is clean and efficient. AUXILIARY POWER UNIT IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES A battery electric vehicle has a comparatively little fuel cell subsidiary power unit ( APU ) to reload the battery battalion during driving. The attractive force of this constellation is the usage of a comparatively little battery battalion ( to let 65 – 110 kilometer of ZEV scope ) while increasing vehicle scope and functionality to be tantamount to conventional vehicles ( 400 – 650km ) . Another cardinal attractive force is that a bulk of kilometer could be expeditiously refueled from the grid leting low or zero CO2 power bring forthing engineering to be deployed in private transit without the tremendous cost and inefficiency of the H2 substructure ( Zizelman, 2000 ) . FUNCTIONS OF APU APU in a auto is responsible for and provides power to the Cooling system Heating system Generator/alternator system Air conditioning compressor SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL APU The combination of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell ( SOFC ) APU and advanced Lithium Ion battery systems appears to do the fuel cell scope extender EV an attractive system in footings of efficiency, weight and cost. The add-on of the APU on the vehicle enhances the value of the vehicle to the electric grid by leting the vehicle to run as a back-up generator for the edifice next to which it is parked. Delphi has been making R A ; D on fuel reforming and fuel cells since 1990. The SOFC plan began in 1999 with a customer-linked plan to develop a 3-5 kilowatt APU merchandise for luxury rider autos running on gasolene. The SOFC APU is a practical first measure for debut of fuel cells in transit. But its linkage to luxury maps ( like electric air conditioning ) alternatively of propulsion and its usage of conventional fuels, alternatively of direct H2, may do it look like a cautious first measure. However a assortment of future integrating schemes for combined rhythm SOFC/ICE, SOFC intercrossed vehicles and the SOFC/Li-Ion scope extender EV offer a broad spectrum of future â€Å" green † applications. In add-on, SOFC is capable of firing H2 or other renewable fuels really expeditiously. The SOFC system will inherently hold highly low emanations. No NOx will be formed in the reforming procedure and the post-combustor will run at temperatures where no NOx and hydrocarbons are for med. But, the SOFC was assumed to accomplish a 40 % efficiency degree for the coevals of electricity ( ( Delphi ) , 2002 ) . 8.0 Final Selection A ; Remarks 8.1 DFMEA: Design Failure Mode Effect Analysis is a systematic analysis of possible failure manners aimed at forestalling those failures. It is an intended preventative action procedure carried out before implementing new or alterations in merchandises or procedures. Table 8.1.1 shows Design Failure Mode Effect Analysis of our construct. 8.2 Risk Appraisal: Battery detonation during clang and acerb spillage Passengers and people in the locality 8 Fire asphyxiator in auto, insularity Remote dismay, acerb spillage solidifier Light weight construction. Aluminium metal organic structure riders 9 airbags Fibre reinforced parts, impact bars, propinquity detectors HVAC working fluid spillage riders 6 none Fluid flow A ; circuit ledgeman Less noise during gesture Pedestrians and bicyclers 5 Horns Proximity detector Electric dazes due to short circuits riders 7 Circuit ledgeman Electric insularity, daze preventer faculties 8.3 Work Packages: Batteries, High Voltage Electrical Distribution Systems Shaikh Jameer Drive Motors, Power Electronics Manjunath T. R Lightweight Structures, Vehicle Dynamics Balakrishna Auxiliary Power Units, HVAC and System Cooling, Aerodynamic Performance Jagathish Energy Recovery and Storage, Parasitic Losses Antony Sunny 8.4 Undertaking Plan Cost Report: Overview of the undertaking program Cost study is shown in Table 8.41 Specification Cost Battery Motor Chassis A ; Body Energy Recovery System HVAC and Auxiliary Power Unit Assorted 9500 5000 2500 2000 4000 5000 9000 4550 2000 1450 3450 4500 500 450 500 550 550 500 Analysis 1200 1000 200 Testing of Components 1500 1200 300 Manufacturing A ; Assembly 2000 1500 500 Testing 1200 1000 200 Table 8.41 Cost Report ( Hamster Internet, Inc. , 2011 ) ( Resciniti, Peshkess, A ; Leonard, 2003 ) ( Cost Variance Stoplights, 2010 ) Chart 8.4.2 Pie Chart of Baseline Cost 8.5 Deliverables: Deliverables are the study, informations or even merchandises which are to be delivered. This is divided in two parts Internal Deliverable and External Deliverables. Internal Deliverables are things which are to be delivered within the people working on the undertaking and external deliverables are those which the people working in the undertaking deliver to the higher governments or users i.e. outside of the undertaking working environment. Table 8.5.1 and Table 8.5.2 show Internal and External deliverables related to our undertaking. Internal Deliverables: Name Description Undertaking and Development Planning Detailss This includes Individual Section Time program, Group Time Plan, QFD of the Undertaking. Weekly Reports Status of the undertaking Selection study This includes describe how a peculiar constituent was selected and/or implemented Required Specifications of the vehicle This includes the concluding specifications External Deliverables: Whole Project Report Report on in what manner the undertaking will be carried out. Cost Estimates Cost Report of the undertaking Undertaking Requirement Details Requirements inside informations includes Machinery and/or Labour, Space required Final Concept and/or Prototypes Working paradigm or Final construct Complete Study of the Project tells about the feasibleness of the undertaking, which are strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. Table 8.6.1 gives usage inside informations on feasibleness of our construct. 9.0 Decision: Use of choice tools like Quality Function Deployment ( QFD ) helped in the construct development, and be aftering stage, including Fish Bone diagram, Concept Phase Gantt chart, and Gantt chart of Group Time Plan helped us in acquiring the concluding specifications of the construct vehicle. And therefore, the construct of the vehicle is developed with C decrease engineerings such as lithium ion batteries, and energy recovery methods which use of solar energy and regenerative braking system. SWOT analysis shows the strength, failing, chances and menaces of the construct and hence, doing the range of research and development much broader. Therefore, we have a ne’er stoping concatenation of construct development and planning, to develop more economic and eco-friendly vehicles. How to cite Low Carbon Emission Family Hatchback Development Engineering Essay, Essay examples

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Eco Friendly Ganpati Essay Example For Students

Eco Friendly Ganpati Essay An eco-friendly Ganesh Utsav In recent times, Ganesh Utsav festivities in Pune have adapted to environmental concerns, says Rasika Dhavse. September 2004 Puneites are passionate about Lord Ganesh. The Ganesh Utsav (Ganesh festival) in Pune is marked by an emotion so intense that it almost resembles mass hysteria. During utsav days, the Lord becomes family, to be worshipped with utmost love and devotion, before he is tearfully bid adieu on the last day of Anant Chaturdashi. In addition to the celebration of the festival at the individual family level, the Sarvajanik (common) Ganesh Utsav sees the involvement of housing societies, commercial and social organizations, and the city as a whole. People throng to the public installations, not just to bow their heads in reverence, but also to check out the latest decorations and tableaux. The Sarvajanik Ganesh Utsav was spearheaded by Lokmanya Tilak during the British rule as a channel to create social awareness amongst the masses. We will write a custom essay on Eco Friendly Ganpati specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now What is unique to Pune is that the city works hard to ensure that the festival retains this socio-cultural identity along with its religious significance. Over the years, the Ganesh Utsav has held a mirror to society, with its tableaux reflecting current social themes such as AIDS, population control, the Kargil War, political farces, major sports events, and even 9/11! Hence, it comes as no surprise that gradually the festival has donned a distinct green look, in keeping with the burning issue of our times – environment. Pic: Punediary. com In the last four to five years, Puneites have become increasingly conscious of the impact of the Ganesh festival on the environment. Over time, it was noticed that on immersion, the plaster of Paris (PoP) as well as the chemical paints used in the making of the idols were polluting the Mula-Mutha rivers, which are the major sources of water supply to the city. Moreover, as the PoP does not dissolve easily, large and small idols surface in the waters days after the immersion. This is especially so for the large public idols, some of which are over 20 feet in height. Similarly, the flowers used in worship are also cast into the waters, resulting in clogging and decay. All this resulted in concerned citizens campaigning for eco-friendly immersions. Today, indiscriminate immersions of Ganesh idols in the city’s lakes and rivers have abated noticeably. The awareness campaigns by youth groups and environmental organizations have led to a change in mindset. Moroever, the Pune Municipal Corporation has also done its bit by constructing tanks and urging citizens to use those for immersion. Now, at the major immersion sites in the city, one can see these concrete or metal water tanks, huge bins, and bands of volunteers. The volunteers, including a significant percentage of schoolchildren, stand guard at the entrance to the immersion sites. As soon as a Ganesh idol is brought in, they request it to be handed over to them. These idols are then immersed in the tanks. Collection centers are set up at various locations in the city, and some local groups such as the Friends of Nature, the Andhashraddha Nirmulan Samiti (ANS) or the Anti-Superstition Committee, and the Friends Society also undertake collection campaigns. People are requested to donate their Ganesh idols to these volunteers, who then take them to the immersion tanks. Traditionally, the flower offerings or nirmalya made to the Lord during the daily prayer rituals are immersed along with the idol. This practice has also come under the surveillance of this eco-drive. The nirmalaya is collected separately in huge bins and later handed over to the agriculture department or similar organizations to be converted into organic fertilizers or used in vermiculture efforts. â€Å"But it hasn’t been easy,† says P Nanawaty of the ANS. Initially our efforts were met with strong resistence by local religious groups. Our workers were beaten up too. The idea of moving away from the traditional immersion in natural water bodies was not appreciated by many. We worked really hard to convince people that we have to do this in order to protect our waters and environment from the damage caused by synthetic paint colors. It was only over time th at people realised that the rivers were getting so polluted that after the festival, water could not be used for drinking in the villages ahead,† he continues. .u6a849b8bb6aba36e74ae4e056e854767 , .u6a849b8bb6aba36e74ae4e056e854767 .postImageUrl , .u6a849b8bb6aba36e74ae4e056e854767 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u6a849b8bb6aba36e74ae4e056e854767 , .u6a849b8bb6aba36e74ae4e056e854767:hover , .u6a849b8bb6aba36e74ae4e056e854767:visited , .u6a849b8bb6aba36e74ae4e056e854767:active { border:0!important; } .u6a849b8bb6aba36e74ae4e056e854767 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u6a849b8bb6aba36e74ae4e056e854767 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u6a849b8bb6aba36e74ae4e056e854767:active , .u6a849b8bb6aba36e74ae4e056e854767:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u6a849b8bb6aba36e74ae4e056e854767 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u6a849b8bb6aba36e74ae4e056e854767 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u6a849b8bb6aba36e74ae4e056e854767 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u6a849b8bb6aba36e74ae4e056e854767 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u6a849b8bb6aba36e74ae4e056e854767:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u6a849b8bb6aba36e74ae4e056e854767 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u6a849b8bb6aba36e74ae4e056e854767 .u6a849b8bb6aba36e74ae4e056e854767-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u6a849b8bb6aba36e74ae4e056e854767:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Endangered Species EssayANS started its work with â€Å"Donate your Ganpati† campaigns in Kolhapur in 1997. These efforts were replicated in Pune and the neighbouring Pimpri-Chinchwad corporation from 1999 onwards. Last year, ANS collected over 35,000 idols across Maharasthra in its donation campaign. These days, many citizens also recycle their idols. They do a token immersion at home in buckets or tubs, and then keep the idol away to be used again the next year. Some others have completely stopped the usage of idols made of PoP or even clay, and switched to metal idols. Vijay Lakshman Bhade, a pensioner from Pune, is one of them. He says, â€Å"For years, we used PoP idols. However, we realized the adverse effects of such immersions on environment. Then a couple of years ago, we started using the tanks, and finally last year, we did a complete switch to a brass idol. In order to be true to tradition too, what we do is keep a betel-nut next to the idol as symbolic of the Lord and immerse that on the last day,† says Bhade, proud to have achieved a perfect blend of tradition and eco-awareness. The green revolution has spread to the very genesis of the Ganesh idols — the idol-making community living in Pen, about 80 kilometers from Mumbai. They are shifting back to using traditional clay instead of plaster. What’s more, the green revolution has spread to the very genesis of the Ganesh idols—the idol-making community living in Pen, about 80 kilometers from Mumbai. Idols made by the Pen craftspeople are considered to be aesthetically true to the Ganesh form, and are much sought after in Mumbai, Pune, Kolhapur, and even abroad. Traditionally, a variety of clay called shaadu would be used. But, though these clay idols are easily soluble in water, they are heavier, smaller, gray in color, not so intricate, and therefore less popular than their PoP counterparts. Hence, some makers had switched to PoP. However, with growing concerns about the environment, they are making the shift back to traditional clay. Also, there are now many who insist on clay idols. Take Shashank Mhasawade, a public relations professional, for example. He says, â€Å"We insist on a clay idol every year, even though the finesse and colors are not as grand as those of PoP clays. Also, my mother started the practice of doing the immersion in a bucket at home, and then watering the garden plants with that water. Moreover, we have done away with using thermacol for our decorations. We now just have a basic decor, in harmony with our traditions and the environment! † Those witnessing the Ganesh Utsav in Pune can discern this definite transformation in mindset and the consequent change in the celebrations. As many who have already leaped the chasm declare, tradition does not shackle you down. It evolves over time, giving you alternatives to preserve its sanctity as well as adapt to the changing environment. All you need is the determination—in this case, the determination to go green. ? Rasika Dhavse September 2004 Rasika Dhavse is a freelance journalist, and writes regularly for India Together.